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Tajikistan

Tajikistan

The traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm [14] of the Neolithic and the Bronze Ageand was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisationAndronovo cultureBuddhismNestorian ChristianityZoroastrianismManichaeism and Islam.

Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in On 9 SeptemberTajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated.

A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from to Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon sincehas been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedomcorruption and widespread violations of human rights.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Tajik ethnic group, [16] who speak Tajik a dialect of Persian. Russian is used as the inter-ethnic language. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where RushaniShughniIshkashimiWakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken.

It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittancesaluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix " -stan " is Persian for "place of" [17] or "country" [18] and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic before the seventh century A.

Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. The earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about BCE when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Northern Tajikistan the cities of Khujand and Panjakent was part of Sogdiaa collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around BCE.

The Kushan Empirea collection of Yuezhi tribes, took control of the region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE during which time BuddhismNestorian ChristianityZoroastrianismand Manichaeism were all practised in the region.

It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from — and then under the control of the Umayyads in The Samanid Empiretorestored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara both cities are today part of Uzbekistan which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan.

The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania which corresponds approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and southwest Kazakhstan and ruled between — During Genghis Khan 's invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central Asia.

In less than a century the Mongol Empire broke up and modern Tajikistan came under the rule of the Chagatai Khanate. Tamerlane created the Timurid dynasty and took control of the region in the 14th century. Modern Tajikistan fell under the rule of the Khanate of Bukhara during the 16th century and with the empire's collapse in the 18th century it came under the rule of both the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand.

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The Emirate of Bukhara remained intact until the 20th century but during the 19th century, for the second time in world history, a European power the Russian Empire began to conquer parts of the region. Between andRussia gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestanthe Tajikistan portion of which had been controlled by the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand. Russia was interested in gaining access to a supply of cotton and in the s attempted to switch cultivation in the region from grain to cotton a strategy later copied and expanded by the Soviets.

During the late 19th century the Jadidists established themselves as an Islamic social movement throughout the region. Although the Jadidists were pro-modernization and not necessarily anti-Russian, the Russians viewed the movement as a threat. Further violence occurred in July when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers in Khujand over the threat of forced conscription during World War I. Despite Russian troops quickly bringing Khujand back under control, clashes continued throughout the year in various locations in Tajikistan.

After the Russian Revolution of guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachiwaged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed.

Travel To Tajikitan - tajikistan history documentary in urdu and hindi - spider tv - تاجکستان کی سیر

Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularisation. Practising IslamJudaismand Christianity was discouraged and repressed, and many mosques, churchesand synagogues were closed.Tajikistan is a small country located in central Asia. It is amongst of the smallest nations in Central Asia, when considered in terms of area.

The Shiite Muslims come second. There are also Christians present too. Tajikistan established diplomatic ties with China inafter which both the countries have managed to stay on friendly terms. Here are some interesting facts about Tajikistan. Tajikistan Flag — Photo by Nicolas Raymond. The present territory of Tajikistan was once part of the Persian Empire and till date it is influenced by Persian culture.

Karakul Lake — Photo by Preston Rhea.

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Tajikistan is completely landlocked. Although it contains a few small lakes they contribute to the mere two percent water coverage of the country.

The legend of the Yeti is still considered to exist in Tajikistan. The capital of Tajikistan — Dushanbe, which is also the largest city, named Monday. This is because, this city was emerged from a village which was popular by the name of Monday market place.

tajikistan

Dushanbe means Monday in Tajik language. Tajikistan is a fairly young country. It gained independence in Tajikistan was ruled over by USSR from s to The United States governmental supported Tajikistan post civil war. United States helped in building a suspension bridge that is a hundred and thirty five meters long connecting Tajikistan to Afghanistan. This facilitated trade to southern Asia and aided Tajikistan overcome after war effects including poverty.

Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Prev Article Next Article.It is bordered by Kyrgyzstan on the north, China on the east, Afghanistan on the south, and Uzbekistan on the west and northwest. Tajikistan encompasses the smallest amount of land among the five Central Asian states, but in terms of elevation it surpasses them all, enclosing more and higher mountains than any other country in the region.

Tajikistan was a constituent union republic of the Soviet Union from until its independence in The capital is Dushanbe.

tajikistan

The Tajik people share close kinship and their language with a much larger population of the same nationality living in northeastern Afghanistan, whose population also includes a large proportion speaking Dari, a dialect of Persian intelligible to Tajiks. Since the early years of independence, Tajikistan has been wracked by conflict between the government and the Islamic opposition and its allies. The Trans-Alay range, part of the Tien Shan system, reaches into the north.

The massive ranges of the southern Tien Shan—the Turkestan Mountains and the slightly lower Zeravshan and Gissar ranges—define the east-central portion of the country. The ice-clad peaks of the Pamir mountain system occupy the southeast. The entire southern Central Asian region, including Tajikistan, lies in an active seismic belt where severe earthquakes are common.

Seismologists have long studied the region, especially in connection with the massive hydroelectric dams and other public works in the area. The dense river network that drains the republic includes two large swift rivers, the upper courses of the Syr Darya and the Amu Daryatogether with their tributaries, notably the Vakhsh and Kofarnihon.

Most of the rivers flow east to west and eventually drain into the Aral Sea basin. The rivers have two high-water periods each year: in the spring, when rains fall and mountain snows melt, and in the summer, when the glaciers begin to melt. The summer flow is particularly helpful for irrigation purposes.

The few lakes in Tajikistan lie mostly in the Pamir region; the largest is Lake Karakul, lying at an elevation of about 13, feet. Lake Sarez was formed in during an earthquake, when a colossal landslide dammed the Murgab River. Sand, shingle, scree, bare rock, and permanent snow and ice cover about two-thirds of the surface. The climate of Tajikistan is sharply continental and changes with altitude. Annual precipitation is slight and ranges between 6 and 10 inches and millimetres but is higher in the Gissar Valley.

In this area precipitation barely reaches 2 to 3 inches a year, most of it falling in summer. Moist air masses move from the west up the valleys, suddenly reaching low-temperature areas and producing locally heavy precipitation, mainly heavy snow of as much as 30 to 60 inches of annual accumulation.

tajikistan

The topographic and climatic variety gives Tajikistan an extremely varied plant life, with more than 5, kinds of flowers alone. Generally grasses, bushes, and shrubs predominate. Brown bears live at lower mountain levels, and goats and golden eagles higher up. Much of Tajikistan is unsuitable for human habitation, but those desert and semidesert lands suitable for irrigated farming have been turned into flourishing oases, with cotton plantations, gardens, and vineyards.

The population density is also high in the large villages strung out in clusters along the foothill regions. There are also narrow valleys that support small villages qishlaq s surrounded by apple orchards, apricot trees, mulberry groves, and small cultivated fields.

In Tajikistan, as in the rest of Central Asia, there has been a general trend toward ruralization. Since the urban proportion of the population has declined, in part because the rate of natural population increase is greater among the rural population. Most Tajiks continue to live in qishlaq s. Such settlements usually consist of to single-family houses built along an irrigation canal or the banks of a river.

Traditionally, mud fences surround the houses and flat roofs cover them, and each domicile is closely connected with an adjacent orchard or vineyard.View Alerts and Messages Archive. Tourist visas : Tajikistan offers a simplified online e-visa system for tourists planning a short single trip to the country, allowing travelers to apply online without needing to visit a Tajik embassy or consulate. The e-visa, issued for a period of 90 days, is only valid for a single entry into the country and stay up to 45 days.

Travel with an e-visa allows entry at the Dushanbe International Airport and land borders. Tourist e-visas do not allow changing travel dates, extensions of stay, or multiple entries into the country.

Tajikistan

If you plan to visit neighboring countries during your stay, you will need to reapply for another single-entry e-visa during your travels. Please note: applying for an additional visa may delay travel since processing of these visas may vary from days. Tajikistan also provides a tourist visa T-visa available upon arrival at the Tajik Consular Unit inside the Dushanbe International Airport. This visa is only available at the airport and not at land-border crossings. T-visas are typically single-entry, non-extendable, and valid for a period of days.

You may request a multiple-entry visa but justification and additional information about travel plans should be included with the application. Supporting documents, including a Tajik visa support letter, are required. Visa validities and fees vary depending on purpose of travel. A personal appearance at a Tajik embassy or consulate may be required depending on the visa category.

To obtain a visa support letter, the inviting organization submits a request to the MFA. When invited by a private Tajik resident e. Any required supporting documents and the visa support letter should be submitted to the MFA Consular Department in Tajikistan by the inviting party. Some non-tourist visa categories allow for the visa to be issued upon arrival, eliminating the need to appear in person at a Tajik embassy or consulate.

This upon-arrival request must be selected at the time the application is submitted online and an additional fee will be required. Tajik visa registration stamps are required for stays over two days. Register your visa within three days of entering the country. Journalists, official travelers, and employees of international organizations register with the MFA. All other travelers register with OVIR.

Failure to register your visa can result in fines and delay your departure. Exiting Tajikistan: Be sure to leave Tajikistan before your visa expires or you may be required to pay a fine as well as pay for an exit visa.

Departure options from Tajikistan are limited. To maximize departure options, get extended visas for travel to countries with reliable connections to Tajikistan, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, and Russia.

You cannot get a Russian visa at the airport.

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If you arrive in Russia without the appropriate visa, authorities may restrict you from future travel to Russia. Refer to information on Travel.

Gov for visa requirements for Russia. If you are a U. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with immigration authorities upon your departure from Tajikistan.Jagged peaks, rough roads in Tajikistan, roof of the world. Afghanistan has an unbelievably beautiful hidden region untouched by war — here's what it looks like. Flights Vacation Rentals Restaurants Things to do. Things to do. Vacation Rentals. Rental Cars. Vacation Packages. Travel Forum. Best of Trip Inspiration.

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Tajikistan Beach Hotels. Tajikistan Luxury Hotels. Tajikistan Spa Resorts. Tajikistan Family Hotels. Tajikistan Business Hotels. By Hotel Class. Popular Amenities. Tajikistan Hotels with Free Parking.The U. Inthe U. Tajikistan has been a strong partner to the U. Stability and economic growth in Tajikistan are critical to achieving overall regional stability and to strengthening regional economic integration.

Tajikistan faces many challenges, including underdeveloped border security, widespread corruption, inadequate health and education systems, and food and energy shortages. Regional threats include violent extremism, terrorism, and the trafficking of narcotics and weapons.

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Government assistance to Tajikistan seeks to help defense and law enforcement agencies counter transnational threats, improve local governance and transparency, increase food security and public health services, and reform the education system, particularly focusing on creating opportunities for youth to contribute to society.

Tajikistan has signed a trade and investment framework agreement with the United States and other Central Asian countries establishing a regional forum to discuss ways to improve investment climates and expand trade within Central Asia.

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Foreign Affairs Manual and Handbook. Department of State by State Map. We Are the U. Leadership The Secretary of State. Deputy Secretary of State. Executive Secretariat. Counselor of the Department. Administrative Department Reports and Publications.The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the s and s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas called "basmachi" fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan inbut in the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province.

Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from to Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency once every seven years and parliament once every five yearsobservers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair.

President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in during the civil war, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan.

In DecemberRAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistani migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan.

Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents sinceincluding armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack inwhen assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four. Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad.

Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, tungsten, and coal. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

10 Interesting Facts About Tajikistan

The civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan is the poorest among the former Soviet republics. Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but its poor business climate remains a hindrance to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan often delays devaluation of its currency for fear of inflationary pressures on food and other consumables.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations have hampered economic growth. Remittances from Russia increased inhowever, bolstering the economy somewhat. The government has not ruled out issuing another Eurobond to generate auxiliary funding for its second phase. We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.

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